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Chifle graham

Chifle graham

First we prepare the yeast mayonnaise, a lump of sugar, two tablespoons of flour and a little warm water. Mix well and let it grow.

In a bowl put graham flour and white flour, mix them, then add the raised mayonnaise, warm water and a little salt. Stir gently, then knead. Finally add the oil and knead until the crust swallows all the oil. Let it grow until it doubles in volume.

We spread the crust and divide it into six pieces. From each piece of crust we form a bun. We place the buns in a tray in which we put baking paper and let it grow a little more.

Grease the buns with beaten egg, then put them in the oven until lightly browned. The buns were fluffy, but a little unsalted.

Keto buns with seeds by Cristina Ioniță

I got the recipe for these wonderful buns from Cristina Ioniță, a person well versed in the field of ketogenic diet and very skilled in keto doughs. Although the list of ingredients may seem long, I assure you that each has its contribution, to get some fluffy buns, with almost no wet core, similar in appearance and taste to graham buns. They are suitable both simple and browned in the toaster.
If you don't have time to prepare them, you can order them ready-made from Loca Sweets. The consistency will be slightly different, due to the industrial oven in which they are baked, but they are just as delicious.

  • 1 or
  • 2 egg whites
  • 100 ml of cold water
  • 100 g Greek yogurt (or all water)
  • 8 g baking powder (1 teaspoon)
  • 40 g finely ground flax seeds (for a lighter bun color, use gold)
  • 50 g of almond flour
  • 20 g Szafi Reform flour
  • 10 g of psyllium bran
  • 100 g raw seed mix (I put sunflower and pumpkin)
  • 45 ml olive oil (3 tablespoons)
  • salt

First mix all the wet components (except the oil).
Then add the others one at a time (tip: hold the bowl on the scale and press the "country" after each ingredient added). Add the oil and mix the dough with a spatula. Initially, it will come out quite soft, so it will be left to stand for about 10-15 minutes. After this interval, the dough will thicken enough that we can work with it.

Divide the dough into 10 equal pieces and shape with wet hands round or more oval buns, as you like. Do not flatten them, it is good for them to be more bulging. Place the buns on a baking sheet and place in the preheated oven at about 170 degrees C for about 50-60 minutes. If they brown too quickly, the temperature drops.

When ready, the buns should be browned and slightly elastic when pressed with the finger. Remove to a grill to cool. Cut only after complete cooling.

I keep them cold, in a bag or box with a lid.

TOTAL: 580 grams, 1751.7 calories, 62.3 protein, 153.2 fat, 25.2 carbohydrates, 42.8 fiber

Note: These calculations are approximate. If you follow a strict diet, I recommend you do your own calculations, starting from the concrete products used.

Pioneer woman Ree Drummond has the best (and most delicious!) Advice on what to do with your children's Halloween candy leftovers

After graduating from the University of Southern California, Ree Drummond intended to go to Chicago for law school, but life had other plans. She soon met farmer Ladd Drummond, married, and moved with him to rural Oklahoma. In order to live on the outskirts of the city, Drummond perfected his culinary skills. She found her appeal by making delicious family dishes and blogging about those adventures. And so the Pioneer Woman was born.

Drummond, 50, is the star of her own popular Food Network show. The Pioneer Woman . She launched five cookbooks, several children's books and even created a Barbie doll created after her resemblance. Her most recent effort is the sixth cookbook, The New Frontier, available on October 22nd. She says she was inspired to enter a new stage in life: having two of her four children out of the house and more freedom to become creative in the kitchen. I've been playing with new versions of recipes I've been making for years, experimenting with more flavors and ingredients and throwing away low-carb recipes, she says. Drummond's latest cookbook offers a wide range of dishes, from her famous - and by no means healthy - Butterscotch lava cakes to her low-carb eggs Benedict and Instant Pot Short Rib Pot Roast.

I asked Drummond what he was cooking these days - and just what to do with all those Halloween candies left.

After she married your husband and moved back to Oklahoma, how was the transition to country life?

It's definitely not easy. There were some mice and dives in the trash under my house. I could hear noises at night and I would wake up with a horse standing at our window. There were a lot of learning curves along the way. In some ways, I still feel like a fish in water, but I like to live where I live. Living away from the city required my cooking every night. Although we could occasionally bring a pizza home, we simply did not have restaurants as an option for meals during the week. Fortunately, I like to cook. It's just something I feel comfortable with. I can think when I cook. I can listen to a podcast while I'm cooking.

Who inspired you to start cooking?

I like to eat and I have always eaten. My sister and I are the same. As soon as we finish a meal, we start thinking about what will be next. My mother was a very good house cook, and my mother-in-law cooked for crowds of cowboys and visitors. They were my main cooking inspirations.

Is it true that you were - at one point - a vegetarian?

I became a vegetarian freshman and I was one until I met my husband. I've always liked vegetables and I've never been a big meat eater. Then my husband made me a steak cooked in heartbreaking butter when we met and that was the end of my vegetarianism - my beliefs were probably not very well rooted in any principles. But I still like vegetarian dishes. You will see some of these in the book.

What is some marriage advice that you are trying to incorporate?

Ladd and I try not to go to bed with a disagreement still waiting. I always make a joke that if our feet touch before we go to bed, then everything is fine. We have the same primary language of love, which is quality time, and we do our best to have as much time as we can at the end of the day. We try not to let this get in the way, because we do our best when we're together.

How your family reacts to you Pioneer Woman popularity?

I did not earn any interesting points with my children because I was the pioneer woman. I think the only time one of my boys was really impressed was because someone famous, like an NFL player, followed me on Twitter. They thought it was the coolest thing ever. But other than that, they're pretty unimpressed. And that's how I like it.

And your dogs have become such a part of Pioneer Woman and family!

Fans have really connected to our late bass hound, Charlie. I was blogging when I took Charlie as a puppy, so he grew up on the blog with my kids. It's nice that my dog ​​Charlie, Ranch books help keep his memory alive. We miss him very much. But we have some bass dogs: Walter, Rusty, Fred and Henry. So my needs are more than met in the basset hound department.

If I have done enough work and the house is not a disaster and I can relax, my guilty pleasure is Bravo and Real housewives . I like to have a glass of wine and watch TV, which is probably not good for my brain. Right now, that's what I aspire to do in my little leisure pockets.

Do you have ingredients that you absolutely will not cook with?

The only ingredient on my list is not a banana. I will not eat one. I don't like the smell or the texture. I have a restaurant and a bakery here in our town and there is no banana in any of the recipes. We opened a small ice cream shop in our city this summer and gave in and said we could have only one banana break. But this is the only banana you will see in my world!

Do you have any tips to make the most of your children's Halloween candy leftovers?

I love making Halloween bark with leftover candy! Spread graham crackers in a single layer on a baking sheet. Melt any meltable chocolate and pour it over the graham crackers. Before the chocolate sets, sprinkle chopped Halloween candies. You can add different colors of splashes or you can alternate the color of the candies and sprinkle it everywhere. Let it split and break it into pieces.

What advice could you have for kitchen aspirants?

You will have some trials and tribulations. But the more you do it, the better. Take the pressure to create the perfect meal for the first, second or 20th time. Will come. And try to prepare your ingredients before you start cooking. It relieves your stress a bit if you already have chopped onions, diced chicken and spices ready.

What was one of the most significant parts of building your brand?

I like to hear from individuals - via email or when signing a book when someone comes to see me - that they have become more confident about cooking because of the show or that my cookbooks or a product of they reminded me of their grandmother or aunt and made them happy. These moments, when I actually get to hear from people who enjoy the different things about the Pioneer woman, add such a human connection to the daily things I do on the farm. It is the best of both worlds. I'm home, but I can still see the effect.

Are there recipes you haven't mastered yet?

Yes, the only recipe I still have is bread. I haven't given up on that and I can do things like cinnamon rolls and pumpkin bread. But when it comes to artisanal bread, yeast-based bread or even sandwich bread, my best version is probably lacking in light, so I'm not afraid to buy bread from the market.

What did you learn from cooking for a large family?

If I learned one thing in a family with four children, it's that no one likes exactly the same food. I might make chicken quesadillas for dinner one night, and Alex just wants cheese — no chicken — but he wants to have hot peppers in it. Bryce will take it with the chicken and cheese, and he will put the salsa in the quesadilla. While Paige will want to sauté some onions. Everyone is as married to their way of eating as I am. So I think less about doing things that fit the needs of everyone in the family and focus more on having fun with the dishes and presenting them in a DIY form, which means different bowls of optional ingredients or toppings, where everyone can customize things themselves.

Soft and fluffy buns in the shape of two-tone rolls & # 8211 a recipe worth noting!

Today we present you a great recipe for good-looking and tasty buns, in the form of rolls with filling. The appetizing delicacy is prepared from the most accessible ingredients, from dough leavened with cocoa powder, which gives it a festive look. These fluffy, fine and delicious buns can be served for breakfast, along with a cup of lukewarm milk or a cup of aromatic tea.





1. Combine eggs and sugar and salt in a bowl. Mix the ingredients using a whisk.

2. Dissolve the yeast with warm milk in a separate bowl, then pour in the vegetable oil. Mix the ingredients using the whisk.

3. Pour the sifted flour into the milk bowl and knead the dough. Sprinkle sifted flour on the work surface, place the dough and divide it into two equal parts.

4. Combine a part of the dough with cocoa powder and knead the dough well. You will get a dough flavored with cocoa powder.

5. Form balls from all sides of the dough, then divide each ball in half. You will get 2 balls of white dough and 2 balls of dough with cocoa powder.

6. Cover the dough with cling film and leave it for 1-1.5 hours.

7. Form a square top of 1 ball of white dough and 1 of the dough with cocoa powder, using a blender.

8. Pour the milk into a small bowl. Grease the white worktop with milk.

10. Overlay the cocoa top over the white one. Gently flatten the countertops, using the blender, then grease the surface of the cocoa countertop with melted butter. Use a silicone brush.

11. Spread the crushed walnuts over the entire surface of the cocoa top.

12. Divide the countertop into two equal parts, along. Roll the split countertops (start from the side).

13. Cut each roll into slices, about 7-8 cm.

14. Place the buns on a baking tray, preventively lined with paper. Leave them for 15-20 minutes, covering them with cling film. Thus form the buns from the remaining dough.

15. Remove the cling film. Beat an egg yolk and grease the buns.

16. Place the tray in the preheated oven at 180 ° C for 20-25 minutes. Baking time depends on each oven.

Flourless bun recipe. Good for dieters

Flour is considered to be a fattening food, and bread is made from flour. Thus, although bread and pastries are delicious, they should be eaten in moderation, as they can easily turn into rolls on the abdomen. In fact, it is not the flour that necessarily makes you fat, but its excessive consumption. To avoid this problem, we propose a recipe for flour-free buns.

100g of white bread contains 295 calories, so a slice of bread made only from refined flour contains no less than 77 calories. Also, white flour can contribute to weight gain because we digest it quickly. This reduces the feeling of satiety that can cause us to eat more. However, carbohydrates are an essential nutrient for the proper functioning of our body. Always opt for "good carbs", which do not raise your blood sugar too much or too fast.

Fluffy check with lemon syrup

In a bowl, mix the dry ingredients: flour, salt, baking powder and baking soda.
In another bowl put eggs and sugar and mix for 2 minutes, until a frothy composition is obtained.
Add grated lemon peel, freshly squeezed lemon juice,
vanilla oil and essence.
Mix on low speed until all ingredients are well incorporated. Fluffy cake with lemon syrup (1)
Then using a spatula, gently incorporate the mixture of dry ingredients.
Preheat the oven to 180 degrees.
Pour the dough into a cake tin lined with baking paper and bake for 20-25 minutes.

Six simple methods to stimulate children's immune systems.

In a kettle put water, freshly squeezed lemon juice, vanilla essence and honey. Put the kettle on the fire and leave it only until the honey melts, stirring constantly.
Lemon syrup is poured immediately over the hot cake.

Leave the cake to cool in the pan, then take it out, dust it with sugar, cut it into slices and enjoy it!

Where can you buy tasty artisanal bread in Chisinau?

Bread has been part of people's diet for centuries. The first bread, in the form we know today, appeared thanks to the Egyptians, who discovered that when yeast and sour milk are added, the bread grows big and fluffy and is much tastier.

Over time, bread took on various forms, cereal-growing techniques changed, different varieties of cereals appeared, and a variety of methods for making dough, yeast, and baking powder were invented.

Bread has come a long way, so that today we can enjoy the diversity of this product: wholemeal bread made from wheat flour, enriched with various additives, mayonnaise or yeast, bran, greens, dairy products, oil, with seeds or mix of herbs from Provence. At the same time, homemade bread is a product prepared exclusively from ingredients of vegetable origin.

The benefits of bread

  • Bread contains carbohydrates that provide energy for the body and brain. The human brain needs 40% of the total amount of carbohydrates in the body. At the same time, bread contains vitamins and amino acids, which help the brain function properly.
  • Bread is also a beneficial product for digestion, because it contains fiber - so necessary for this process. Fiber can prevent a number of conditions such as diabetes, obesity or even cancer.
  • Bread containing milk or yogurt, provides us with part of the daily requirement of proteins that maintain good health and strengthen the muscle mass of the body. The best sources of protein are oats, rye and wheat.
  • Bread based on bran, with the addition of flax seeds and fiber is excellent for improving intestinal transit, having a good influence on the functioning of the intestines, blood sugar levels and weight maintenance.

Properties of different types of bread

Wholemeal bread raises the level of serotonin in the brain, creates well-being and reduces the craving for sweets. Black bread with rye, wholemeal and Graham, although prepared with a part of white flour, are the healthiest, as they have a high content of nutrients, stimulate intestinal transit, ensure easy digestion, fight constipation, eliminate toxins from the body, reduce Blood cholesterol, improve the functioning of the brain, fight diseases caused by stress and help maintain optimal weight.

Maya bread It is easier to digest and is recommended for people with stomach problems because it has a beneficial effect on the intestinal flora.

Bread without yeast helps restore the beneficial bacterial flora in the human gastrointestinal tract. has made a list of artisanal bread producers in Chisinau, who always provide you with fresh and healthy products, prepared according to traditional recipes with 100% natural ingredients.

The information presented in this article is valid as of the date of publication: 27.01.2021. You can find the prices from the manufacturers.

Weed recipes

After a recent post I noticed that there is an interest in edibles 1 and respectively edibles recipes 2 . So I created this thread in order to gather such recipes, observations, recommendations on the process of decarboxylation 3, etc.

I'll start with a recipe and a recommendation for decarb.

(Optional graham crackers with Nutella / Peanut Butter and weed )

Ten minutes50 minutes1 hour
DesertAmericanHow long does your pocket last (eg 3 servings)

Weed 4

How we choose between Nutella and Peanut Butter? Most would choose Nutella for taste, in this case it is not only a preference, it is also a science. THC binds best to fats, so the more fat, the better! That being said, Peanut Butter has somewhere between 46-50g / 100g fat, while Nutella has 30.9g / 100g fat. But what do I do ifcomplicated I also want the taste of Nutella and the train hit? Combine them! On one Nutella cookie, and on the other Peanut Butter! (It's more expensive though).

Oven and preferably an empty house!


Preheat the oven to 120 ° C. it hail 5 quite fine plant material and place in a crib made of aluminum foil of about 10x10cm. Place in the preheated oven at 120 ° C and leave to decarbe for about 30 minutes. (This is the most basic decarboxylation process, if you don't want your house to smell like Jamaican style, you can use other methods that will be presented later)


After the decarboxylation process is ready, take an equal number of biscuits with the desired number of servings (fig. 1 - gallery), in my case 2 biscuits. Apply a generous coat of peanut butter over which the desired amount of plant material is sprinkled (fig. 2 - gallery in this example 0.3g per serving), one more biscuit will be taken from each one, greased this time with Nutella * (in this case) * and placed on top of the other (fig. 3 and 4 - gallery). After the portions reach the desired number, they are individually wrapped in aluminum foil and put in a preheated oven at 140 ° C (fig. 4 and 5 - gallery) for another 20 minutes.

That's it! After 20 minutes the crackers I'm ready to serve! I do not recommend more than 0.3g per serving / person, it is high compared to normal, it hits harder even if you are tolerant. I would wait somewhere between 1h - 1h 30min for re-dose. Good appetite!

Alternative process for odorless decarboxylation - Use of a jar with a lid (per user Silverfoxcrest) or the use of a chicken bag (aka Magic Bag) and dental floss / fishing line as seen here.

I hope I was helpful and that some of you may try this recipe, if you do, rate it down in the comments! I am waiting for the involvement of the community now, any kind of recommendation, recipe, etc. you have to post it down below. Ex: The recipe for blackberries from the undercoveraver rodent. I & # x27m waiting for your inputs! Stay safe and happy toking!

P.S. you could PIN this if you want to.

edibles - provenance: American abbreviation for edible marijuana, describes any edible product containing THC, most often found in the form of dessert, such as brownies (blacks, cookies (cookies / cakes), space cakes (space cakes / s and firecrackers) pocnitori lmao).

edibles recipes - recipes in which the previously described edibles are used

decarboxylation - is an organic chemical reaction by which a carboxyl group is transformed into carbon dioxide, thus being removed from the chain. It usually refers to the removal of a carbon atom from the chain of a carboxylic acid or a carboxylic ester. In our case it activates certain compounds, such as smoking-like THC, which does the same thing only by burning. THCA - & gt THC (by burning / heating, THCA is not psychoactive, it is just anti-inflammatory while we are looking for THC.)

weed - mostly green-brown plant material with a known smell on the block's stairs and at that fair last weekend, having as properties the intoxication of consumers and the power to always be found with 0.2g less. aka Green, Herb, Marijuana, Cannabis, Mahoarca, T-shirts, etc.

hail - action by which vegetable material is crushed, it is clear that it is tobacco, using a grinder (metal / plasticized object in 3 parts similar to a grater or a plastic box with a lid and a 50 bani coin.)

Romanian established recipes in the milling and bakery industry

The article below represents the almost complete translation into Romanian of the article published by us in Scientific Papers Series Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development, Vol. 20, Issue 1, 2020, pp 417 & # 8211 424 and entitled ROMANIAN CONSACRATED RECIPES IN THE MILLING AND BAKERY INDUSTRY.

The recipes established for certain categories of food products are described in Romanian legislation by a series of normative acts issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. It is about the joint Order of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Minister of Health and the President of the National Authority for Consumer Protection no. 394/290/89 of 2014. This order regulates the conditions that must be met by the operators in the food sector in order to register in the National Register of Consecrated Recipes certain categories of products, manufactured according to Romanian established recipes. The legislation defines the established Romanian recipe as a food product manufactured in compliance with the composition used more than 30 years before the date of entry into force of Order 394/290/89/2013 (before 1984). In order to be certified, manufacturers must make a technical documentation that includes: product name, description of raw materials and ingredients used, established recipe, technological scheme, description of the technological process, sensory, physico-chemical and microbiological quality indicators, respectively related elements packaging, labeling, storage and transport. The documentation must also describe the control procedures and methods [1]. In exchange for this documentation, producers receive a certificate issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and the right to use a specific logo on the label of the respective food products. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the number of established recipes on the market of milling and bakery products, 5 years after the appearance of this type of certification. We also set out to discuss a number of technological issues related to their implementation in the industry. At the same time, we intend to evaluate what would be in the future, the potential to approach well-known recipes for other milling and bakery products.

At the base of the economic agents' interest for the established recipes is the tendency of the consumers to look for authentic foods, made according to old recipes and technologies. For example, the Taste Tomorow study (2019) conducted at European level by the company Ipsos for the Puratos group, highlighted the interest of consumers for bakery products that provide fewer calories, fat and salt and more fiber, whole grains, seeds and protein. Maya bread is considered by most consumers as the bread of the future based on three criteria: freshness, nutritional intake and taste. The main criterion for choosing bread for the consumer was identified as freshness [3]. Freshness is a feature of bread that is described by a multitude of criteria, the most representative being the "starch downgrade rate". This rate depends on the quality of the raw material, the recipe, the technology applied, the packaging method and the storage temperatures. The old technologies characterized by long dough fermentation times are based on increasing the diversity of microbial species involved in fermentation and implicitly on increasing the complexity of the enzyme system that acts in the dough. All this leads to an increase in the hydrophilic properties of the dough components and to a more uniform gelatinization of the starch granules. Active compounds are formed in the stabilization of the dough, which act on proteins (organic acids). Lipid hydrolysis compounds contribute to the stabilization of gas bubbles, participating in the formation of micellar structures on their surface [5]. The diversity and amount of active compounds in Maillard reactions also increase, resulting in an improved flavor and taste profile.

The basis of modern bread-making technology is the so-called Chorleywood process (direct, single-phase method). It originates a series of researches carried out between 1950 and 1962 by the British Baking Industries Research Association, in order to streamline the duration of the technological process of obtaining bread in the conditions of using flours with lower protein content. The average fermentation time of the dough for bakeries in Great Britain at that time was 2-3 hours. The results obtained allowed the creation of a technology that later spread throughout the world and is characterized by: the formation and development of the dough in a single short-term technological operation (max. 5-7 minutes), the use of intensive kneading, the use of an oxidizing agent (initially potassium bromate, now ascorbic acid), the use of an emulsifier or a high-melting fat, the addition of an additional amount of water to control the consistency of the dough and the addition of at least twice the amount of yeast [6]. From an economic point of view, these changes allow a significant shortening of production times (increasing the use of the production line) and obtaining a better yield in bread (increasing the amount of dough due to the addition of additional water). In Romania, the direct method was introduced in the industry in the 70s, being applied to obtain some bakery products or bakery products with various additives, which compensated the faded taste generated by the short fermentation times [7].

The duration of a technological cycle, necessary for the preparation of the dough ready to be introduced for baking, for a product made according to an established recipe, can reach almost 10 hours, while in the case of modern methods, the product can be obtained in one hour (table 1 ). Modern technologies for obtaining bakery products are characterized by complex recipes that contain substances that reduce the resistance of the dough (a series of enzymes such as amylases, proteases, xylanases or reducing agents such as L-cysteine) or on the contrary improve the visco-elastic properties of weak flours (ascorbic acid, enzymes from the category of oxido-reductases, emulsifiers, lipases, etc.) [9]. Tehnologiile de framantare au la baza cicluri de framantare intensiva (la viteze mari de actiune a bratelor de framantare a malaxoarelor) si geometrii ale echipamentelor de lucru, care permit aplicarea lucrului mecanic asupra aluatului cu pierderi minime de energie. Mai mult, acestea folosesc microorganisme selectionate capabile sa se activeze rapid (adica sa-si produca repede echipamentul enzimatic necesar degradarii amidonului si formarii gazelor de fermentatie care vor contribui la cresterea volumul produselor de panificatie). Rezultatul este atingerea unor proprietati viscoelastice optime in timpul cel mai scurt [10].

In tabelul 1 este prezentat timpul necesar pentru obtinerea aluatului pentru produsul paine neagra, functie de tipul de tehnologie utilizat (durata de coacere a fost neglijata pentru ca depinde de gramajul produselor si de sortiment si nu induce diferente semnificative intre tehnologii) (dupa Leonte M., 2008)

Tehnologiile pe care se bazează rețetele consacrate românești provin dintr-un sistem economic centralizat și nu au fost concepute sub presiunea unor factori care prevalează în economia actuală: factori legați de eficiența energetică, maximizarea ratelor de valorificare a capitalurilor, impactul asupra mediului etc. Ele sunt atractive din perspectiva valorii adaugate in raport cu produsele provenite din tehnologii moderne si pot rezista pe piata atata vreme cat interesul consumatorilor pentru acestea se mentine constant, iar acestia sunt dispusi sa ofere mai mult pentru a achizitiona acest gen de produse. Piata romaneasca de produse de panificatie este caracterizata de unul dintre cele mai mari consumuri pe cap de locuitor (70 -90 kg/an, functie de diverite evaluari si surse), dar si de cele mai mici preturi in raport cu media Uniunii Europene (fig. 2) [4].

Un studiu realizat de GFk Romania in anul 2018 releva că 82% dintre români consumă zilnic pâine, cu 7% mai puțini față de anul 2009 când această categorie a consumatorilor frecvenți de pâine era de 89 % (studiu Gallup). Peste trei sferturi dintre români achiziționau în mod curent pâinea proaspătă, reprezentata de franzela traditionala [8]. La sfarsitul anului 2019 erau inregistrate un numar de 33 de retete consacrate romanesti. Aproximativ 33 % dintre acestea se refereau la produse provenite din lapte, 27 % la produse provenite din carne, 27 % produse de panificatie, 9 % din fructe si legume iar restul, la alte produse alimentare. Nici un produs de morarit nu se afla printre acestea, probabil si din pricina faptului ca tehnologiile de morarit nu au evoluat semnificativ din 1984 incoace. În tabelul 2 sunt prezentate denumirile produselor de panificatie, precum si companiile de pe piata, care au solicitat acest tip de atestare.

Din tabel se observă ca societatile comerciale care au solicitat obtinerea atestatului pentru retete consacrate provin din mai putin de jumatate din judetele tarii. Una dintre aceste societati, care detine cel mai mare numar de atestate apartine Patronatului Roman din domeniul Moraritului si Panificatiei (ROMPAN). Cel mai mare interes pentru obținerea atestarii l-au reprezentat produsele de panificatie cu adaos de cartofi, anume: pâine albă cu cartofi (9 producatori atestati), paine semialba cu cartofi si pâine neagră cu cartofi (cu câte 4 producatori atestati). Două dintre produse, desi au faina, ca materie prima, nu aparțin tehnologiilor de fabricare a painii, respectiv vafele cu umplutură și savarineta (produs obținut prin coacerea unui aluat fermentat obținut din făină albă, drojdie, lapte de consum standardizat lichid sau praf, zahăr, ouă, ulei, sare și apă savarinetele reprezintă aluatul copt din produsul ”savarină”). De asemenea, doua dintre produsele care dețin rețete consacrate aparțin aceluiași tip tehnologic, și anume produselor de franzelărie (franzela București și “impletiți suprapuși).

Dacă înțelegem prin cluster tehnologic, o grupă de produse cu rețete și tehnologii similare care pot fi tratate împreună din punct de vedere a conducerii proceselor și verificării conformității cu un anumit standard, studiul colecțiilor de standarde pentru industria de morărit și panificatie dinainte de 1988 permit identificarea a 22 de clustere tehnologice, așa cum se observă în tabelul 3.

Tabelul 3. Clustere tehnologice pentru produsele de panificație românești vechi [12]

Nr.ClusterObservații referitoare la retete
1Pâine graham cu mierepâine din făină graham, drojdie comprimată, miere artificială și acid lactic
2Pâine de grâu cu cartofipâine din făină de grâu neagră, albă, integrală cu adaos de pastă de cartofi, făină de cartofi, făină de orez, drojdie, sare apă și amelioratori ca: acid lactic, acid ascorbic, acid acetic, citric sau diamalț
3Pâine hipoglucidică pentru diabeticiobținut din gluten umed in care se adaugă faina de grau alba si semialba, tărâțe de grâu, drojdie, sare, unt și chimen
4Pâine dieteticăobtinut din faina de grau tip 1750, sare, drojdie, zer și apa
5Produse de franzelărie (cu sau fară adaosuri: cornuri, chifle, împletituri, batoane, franzele, pâini de diferite forme și dimensiuni)aici erau incluse zeci de produse obtinute din faina alba, faina graham, faina tip 800, drojdie, sare si diferite adaosuri: zahar, glucoza, diamalt, ulei, untura, margarina, unt, lapte, zer, zară, lecitina, ouă, miere artificială, arome, mac, seminte de anason, acid ascorbic, acetic, gluconat de calciu, citrat de calciu sau lactat de calciu.
6Pâine integralăobtinut din faina integrala de grau, drojdie, sare și apă
7Pâine de secarăobtinut integral din faina de secara tip 1200, fie dintr-un amestec de faina de secara tip 1200 si faina de grau tip 900, drojdie, sare, diamalt si zer
8Pâine Dâmbovițaobtinut din faina de grau tip 800, drojdie, sare, apa, la care se putea adauga diamalt si amelioratori, precum acizii lactic, ascorbic, citric, acetic sau lecitina.
9Specialitate de secarăobținut din faina neagra de grau, faina de secara, drojdie, sare, tarate de grau si apa
10Specialitate Grahamobtinut din faina neagra de grau, faina graham, drojdie, sare, chimen si apa.
11Fibropanobtinut din tarate de grau, faina alba, drojdie, sare, lapte praf pasteurizat, apa si copt in forma
12Pâine hipocaloricăobtinut din faina de grau tip 1250, faina proteica tip B din germei de porumb nedegresati, drojdie, sare si apa
13Specialitate Pandurobtinuta din faina de grau dur tip 900, drojdie, sare, glucoza sau diamalt, zer sau zara, si apa.
14Pâine acloridăfaina de grau integrala, faina de grau tip 800, faina alba, drojdie, apa si acizi ascorbic, lactic, acetic, diamalt si lecitina.
15Pâine albăprodusul pe care-l cumparam in prezent sub titlul generic de paine alba, obtinut din faina alba tip 650, drojdie comprimata, sare si apa. Functie de conditiile tehnologice se puteau utiliza ca amelioratorii acizii organici, acidul ascorbic, diamaltul si lecitina
16Specialitate Suceveanăobtinut din faina alba de grau, drojdie, sare, zahar, oua, grasimi si lapte
17Franzeluță desert cu merefaina alba de grau, drojdie, sare, zahar, ulei, ulei de lamaie si mere rase
18Specialitate Vrânceanăfaina alba de grau, faina alimentara degresata de soia tip B, cremogen din porumb, drojdie, sare, zahar, ulei
19Pâine cu preferment (pâine Galați, pâine Dunărea)faina alba de grau, drojdie, sare, faina de soia degresata tip B, cremogen de porumb, diamalt, miere artificiala, ulei, lecitina si extract lacto-bactic
20Pâine proteicăobtinuta din gluten umed, faina semialba de grau, drojdie, tarate de grau, sare si unt.
21Specialitate Snagovfaina alba de grau tip 680, drojdie, sare, glucoza, grasimi vegetale sau animale, zer sau zara, cremogen de porumb si apa
22Specialități de panificație cu adaos de tărâțe, germeni de grâu și arpacaș de grâu (Mozaic, Herăstrău, Germipan, Grâul)obtinute prin coacerea unui aluat fermentat preparat din faina alba de grau, tarate de grau, arpacas de grau, germeni de grau, lapte, zer sau zara, ulei, glucoza sau extract de malt sau miere artificiala si apa.

Observăm că nu toate aceste produse corespund în mod neaparat așteptărilor actuale ale consumatorilor legate de produse alimentare fara aditivi și sănatoase. Rețetele consacrate nu exclud aditivii alimentari (acid lactic, citric ascorbic, acetic, diamalțul) sau inlocuitorii anumitor produse alimentare (mierea artificiala). In plus, anumite produse nu mai corespund cerintelor legislative actuale, spre exemplu: produsul “pâine graham cu miere” face trimitere in propria denumire la un ingredient alimentar pe care de fapt nu-l contine, respective mierea naturala.

De asemenea, în cazul anumitor produse, denumirile nu mai reflectă ingredientele corespunzătoare standardelor actuale și pot genera confuzii în defavoarea consumatorului. Spre exemplu, reteta consacrata de pâine integrală prevede folosirea unei faini integrale a carei definitie in standardele vremii nu este clara. Pâinea integrală este consumată inca din perioada interbelica si exista cel putin un document oficial (o discuție într-o ședință a Consiliului de Miniștri din 1942) in care este amintit ca, pentru obtinerea acestui tip de paine se utiliza faina cu o extractie de cel putin 85 % [11]. În acest moment, făina integrala de grâu implică păstrarea în conținutul acesteia a tuturor componentelor bobului de grâu (germene, endosperm, învelișuri exterioare). Pierderile acceptate sunt de maxim 1-2 % ca urmare a unei superficiale decojiri a bobului pentru eliminarea contaminantilor de natură microbiană sau chimică remanente pe bobul de grau.(microorganisme, micotoxine, metale grele, pesticide etc). O extractie de 85 % poate corespunde in cazul tehnologiilor moderne unei faini clasice de tip 650–700, cel mult făină semialbă.

Retetele vechi romanesti reusesc insa sa combine intr-o maniera care lipseste retetelor de astazi fainuri sau produse tehnologice provenind din diverse surse cerealiere sau leguminoase: faina de porumb, faina de soia, germeni, faina de secara, arpacas, faina de cartof, faina graham, tarate etc. În panificatia actuala toate aceste ingrediente provin din premixuri si nu sunt gestionate in mod direct de brutari. Prin urmare, retetele vechi au avantajul diversitatii surselor de poliglucide și fibre, precum si al utilizarii unor ingrediente care in rețetele uzuale au disparut, precum zerul și zara.

Daca combinam informatiile din Tabelele 2 si 3 putem observa ca produsele pentru care s-au obtinut atestate apartin doar la 4 din cei 22 de clusteri tehnologici (paine cu cartofi, paine de secara, paine integrala si produse de franzelarie). Practic, doar putin peste 18 % din retetele vechi romanesti sun reprezentate in prezent in gama de produse realizate dupa retete consacrate oferite de producatorii romani. La baza acestei situatii stau probabil atat considerente de ordin economic cât și social, din care enumerăm:

  • tehnologii inadecvate exigentelor actuale referitoare la eficienta energetica si de valorificare a capitalurilor (timpi tehnologici mai lungi, consumuri mai mari de forta de munca, necesitati de urmarire si control a parametrilor tehnologici care implica resursa umana specializata)
  • dezinteresul pentru valorificarea superioara a produselor secundare de morarit (germeni, tarate, faina de porumb etc) in conditiile in care morarii sunt obisnuiti sa livreze aceste produse catre furajarea animalelor, iar brutarii sa le achizitioneze sub forma de premixuri, in general de pe pietele externe. În economia centralizata, de tip planificat, subprodusele respective erau programate sa faca parte din anumite retete de produse alimentare pentru consumul uman, iar cantitatile pe care procesatorii trebuiau sa le livreze catre industria alimentara erau stabilite dinainte
  • trebuie facuta o distinctie intre nostalgia fata de produse alimentare disponibile candva si pe care le asociem cu anumite arome si gusturi si asteptarile actuale ale consumatorilor, interesati mai degraba de alimente de clean label.

Nici un produs de morărit nu se regăsește pe lista rețetelor consacrate românești. Acest lucru se datorează faptului că produsele de morărit nu sunt rezultatul unor rețete, ci a unor tehnologii de procesare care nu s-au modificat semnificativ în ultimii 40 de ani. Singura modificare semnificativă în raport cu modul în care erau obținute produsele de morărit acum 40 de ani se referă la corectarea calității acestora în moară. Practic, produsele actuale de morărit pot conține anumite cantități de subtanțe cu efect de îmbunătățire a potențialului tehnologic, precum: acid ascorbic, cisteina, enzime, gluten vital etc. Inainte de 1984 aditivii erau adăugati exclusiv în brutării, adica utilizarea lor era condiționata de destinația făinii într-un anumit produs de panificație. Practic, toate produsele de morărit în care nu există adaosuri de amelioratori pot fi considerate ca fiind retete consacrate, in acceptiunea legislatiei promovate de Ministerul Agriculturii. Totuși există o serie de produse ale industriei de morărit de atunci care pot fi revalorificate ca rețete consacrate, in sensul ca sunt caracteristice acelei epoci si nu se fabrică pe scară largă in prezent. Acestea ar contribui la creșterea diversității ofertelor de pe piață cu eforturi minime din partea operatorilor din industrie și ar permite accesul la o sursă importanta de nutrienți pentru consumatori (tabelul 4).

Consideram ca prin prisma informatiilor prezentate aici, valorificarea retetelor si tehnologiilor vechi in produsele alimentare modern, poate fi un castig semnificativ pentru consumator. Dezagregarea sistemului economic centralizat si implicit disolutia institutiilor implicate in standardizarea retetelor si a normelor de fabricare a produselor alimentare romanesti a condus la disparitia de pe piete a unor produse alimentare care ar putea contribui in prezent la diversificarea ofertelor existente pe aceste piete. O parte din produsele vechi ale industriei de morarit si panificatie romanesti sunt acum importate sau fac parte din compozitia unor inputuri complexe utilizate in industrie, dar provenite din import. Miza legislației referitoare la produsele alimentare fabricate după rețete consacrate nu ar trebui să fie neapărat una psihologică (întoarcerea consumatorului la arome și gusturi cu care acesta era familiarizat candva) deoarece unele dintre aceste retete sunt in contradictie cu evolutiile moderne ale comportamentului de consum (nu sunt clean label si contin ingrediente care in prezent sunt controversate).

Video: Chifle Pentru HamburgerCele mai Gustoase si Pufoase ChifleBuns RecipeThe Most Tasty and Fluffy (December 2021).